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3He-Rich Solar Energetic Particles: Solar Sources

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Bučík,  Radoslav
Department Sun and Heliosphere, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Bučík, R. (2020). 3He-Rich Solar Energetic Particles: Solar Sources. Space Science Reviews, 216: 24. doi:10.1007/s11214-020-00650-5.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0005-C5BD-8
Abstract
3He-rich solar energetic particles (SEPs), showing up to a 10,000-fold abundance enhancement of rare elements like 3He or ultra-heavy nuclei, have been a puzzle for more than 50 years. One reason for the current lack of understanding of 3He-rich SEPs is the difficulty resolving the source regions of these commonly occurring events. Since their discovery, there has been strong evidence that 3He-rich SEP production is associated with flares on the Sun. Anomalous abundances of 3He-rich SEPs have been attributed to a unique acceleration mechanism that must routinely operate at flare sites. Flares associated with 3He-rich SEPs have been often observed in jet-like forms indicating an acceleration in magnetic reconnection involving field lines open to interplanetary space. Owing to a fleet of spacecraft around the Sun, providing a greatly improved resolution of solar imaging observations, 3He-rich SEP sources are now explored in unprecedented detail. This paper outlines the current understanding of 3He-rich SEPs, mainly focusing on their solar sources.