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Journal Article

Simulated Microgravity Influences VEGF, MAPK, and PAM Signaling in Prostate Cancer Cells


Bauer,  Johann
Scientific Service Groups, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Hybel, T. E., Dietrichs, D., Sahana, J., Corydon, T. J., Nassef, M. Z., Wehland, M., et al. (2020). Simulated Microgravity Influences VEGF, MAPK, and PAM Signaling in Prostate Cancer Cells. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, 21(4): 1263. doi:10.3390/ijms21041263.

Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0006-4E20-F
Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality in men worldwide. An unusual but unique environment for studying tumor cell processes is provided by microgravity, either in space or simulated by ground-based devices like a random positioning machine (RPM). In this study, prostate adenocarcinoma-derived PC-3 cells were cultivated on an RPM for time periods of 3 and 5 days. We investigated the genes associated with the cytoskeleton, focal adhesions, extracellular matrix, growth, survival, angiogenesis, and metastasis. The gene expression of signaling factors of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and PI3K/AKT/mTOR (PAM) pathways was investigated using qPCR. We performed immunofluorescence to study the cytoskeleton, histological staining to examine the morphology, and a time-resolved immunofluorometric assay to analyze the cell culture supernatants. When PC-3 cells were exposed to simulated microgravity (s-mu g), some cells remained growing as adherent cells (AD), while most cells detached from the cell culture flask bottom and formed multicellular spheroids (MCS). After 3-day RPM exposure, PC-3 cells revealed significant downregulation of the VEGF, SRC1, AKT, MTOR, and COL1A1 gene expression in MCS, whereas FLT1, RAF1, MEK1, ERK1, FAK1, RICTOR, ACTB, TUBB, and TLN1 mRNAs were not significantly changed. ERK2 and TLN1 were elevated in AD, and FLK1, LAMA3, COL4A5, FN1, VCL, CDH1, and NGAL mRNAs were significantly upregulated in AD and MCS after 3 days. After a 5-day culture in s-mu g, the PC-3 cells showed significant downregulations of VEGF mRNA in AD and MCS, and FN1, CDH1, and LAMA3 in AD and SCR1 in MCS. In addition, we measured significant upregulations in FLT1, AKT, ERK1, ERK2, LCN2, COL1A1, TUBB, and VCL mRNAs in AD and MCS, and increases in FLK1, FN1, and COL4A5 in MCS as well as LAMB2, CDH1, RAF1, MEK1, SRC1, and MTOR mRNAs in AD. FAK1 and RICTOR were not altered by s-mu g. In parallel, the secretion rate of VEGFA and NGAL proteins decreased. Cytoskeletal alterations (F-actin) were visible, as well as a deposition of collagen in the MCS. In conclusion, RPM-exposure of PC-3 cells induced changes in their morphology, cytoskeleton, and extracellular matrix protein synthesis, as well as in their focal adhesion complex and growth behavior. The significant upregulation of genes belonging to the PAM pathway indicated their involvement in the cellular changes occurring in microgravity.