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Modeling radio-frequency energy-induced heating due to the presence of transcranial electric stimulation setup at 3T

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Kozlov,  Mikhail
Department Neurophysics (Weiskopf), MPI for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Max Planck Society;

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Weiskopf,  Nikolaus
Methods and Development Unit Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, MPI for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Max Planck Society;
Felix Bloch Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Leipzig, Germany;

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Möller,  Harald E.
Methods and Development Unit Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, MPI for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Kozlov, M., Horner, M., Kainz, W., Weiskopf, N., & Möller, H. E. (2020). Modeling radio-frequency energy-induced heating due to the presence of transcranial electric stimulation setup at 3T. Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine, 33, 793-807. doi:10.1007/s10334-020-00853-5.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0006-7414-1
Abstract
Purpose The purpose of the present study was to develop a numerical workflow for simulating temperature increase in a high-resolution human head and torso model positioned in a whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) radio-frequency (RF) coil in the presence of a transcranial electric stimulation (tES) setup. Methods A customized human head and torso model was developed from medical image data. Power deposition and temperature rise (ΔT) were evaluated with the model positioned in a whole-body birdcage RF coil in the presence of a tES setup. Multiphysics modeling at 3T (123.2 MHz) on unstructured meshes was based on RF circuit, 3D electromagnetic, and thermal co-simulations. ΔT was obtained for (1) a set of electrical and thermal properties assigned to the scalp region, (2) a set of electrical properties of the gel used to ensure proper electrical contact between the tES electrodes and the scalp, (3) a set of electrical conductivity values of skin tissue, (4) four gel patch shapes, and (5) three electrode shapes. Results Significant dependence of power deposition and ΔT on the skin’s electrical properties and electrode and gel patch geometries was observed. Differences in maximum ΔT (> 100%) and its location were observed when comparing the results from a model using realistic human tissue properties and one with an external container made of acrylic material. The electrical and thermal properties of the phantom container material also significantly (> 250%) impacted the ΔT results. Conclusion Simulation results predicted that the electrode and gel geometries, skin electrical conductivity, and position of the temperature sensors have a significant impact on the estimated temperature rise. Therefore, these factors must be considered for reliable assessment of ΔT in subjects undergoing an MRI examination in the presence of a tES setup.