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The primordial black hole formation criterion re-examined: Parametrisation, timing and the choice of window function

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Young,  Sam
Department of Membrane Biophysics, MPI for biophysical chemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Young, S. (2019). The primordial black hole formation criterion re-examined: Parametrisation, timing and the choice of window function. International Journal of Modern Physics D, 29(2): 2030002. doi:10.1142/S0218271820300025.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0006-78EA-C
Abstract
In this paper, the criterion used to determine whether a density perturbation will collapse to form a primordial black hole (PBH) is re-examined in respect of its use to determine the abundance of PBHs. There is particular focus on which parameter to use, the time at which the abundance should be calculated, and the use of different smoothing functions. It is concluded that, with the tools currently available, the smoothed density contrast should be used rather than the peak value, and should be calculated from the time-independent component of the density contrast in the super-horizon limit (long before perturbations enter the horizon) rather than at horizon crossing. For the first time, the effect of the choice of smoothing function upon the formation criterion is calculated, and, for a given abundance of PBHs, it is found that the uncertainty in the amplitude of the power spectrum due to this is O(10%), an order of magnitude smaller than that suggested by previous calculations. The relation between the formation criterion stated in terms of the density contrast and the curvature perturbation R is also discussed.