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Electrical noise modulates perception of electrical pulses in humans: Sensation enhancement via stochastic resonance

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Fivos,  Iliopoulos
Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Humboldt, University Berlin, Germany;
Department Neurology, MPI for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Max Planck Society;
International Max Planck Research School on the Life Course (LIFE), Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Max Planck Society;

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Nierhaus,  Till
Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Humboldt, University Berlin, Germany;
Department Neurology, MPI for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Max Planck Society;

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Villringer,  Arno
Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Humboldt, University Berlin, Germany;
Department Neurology, MPI for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Fivos, I., Nierhaus, T., & Villringer, A. (2014). Electrical noise modulates perception of electrical pulses in humans: Sensation enhancement via stochastic resonance. Journal of Neurophysiology, 111(6), 1238-1248. doi:10.1152/jn.00392.2013.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0006-B17B-8
Abstract
Although noise is usually considered to be harmful for signal detection and information transmission, stochastic resonance (SR) describes the counterintuitive phenomenon of noise enhancing the detection and transmission of weak input signals. In mammalian sensory systems, SR-related phenomena may arise both in the peripheral and the central nervous system. Here, we investigate behavioral SR effects of subliminal electrical noise stimulation on the perception of somatosensory stimuli in humans. We compare the likelihood to detect near-threshold pulses of different intensities applied on the left index finger during presence vs. absence of subliminal noise on the same or an adjacent finger. We show that (low-pass) noise can enhance signal detection when applied on the same finger. This enhancement is strong for near-threshold pulses below the 50% detection threshold and becomes stronger when near-threshold pulses are applied as brief trains. The effect reverses at pulse intensities above threshold, especially when noise is replaced by subliminal sinusoidal stimulation, arguing for a peripheral direct current addition. Unfiltered noise applied on longer pulses enhances detection of all pulse intensities. Noise applied to an adjacent finger has two opposing effects: an inhibiting effect (presumably due to lateral inhibition) and an enhancing effect (most likely due to SR in the central nervous system). In summary, we demonstrate that subliminal noise can significantly modulate detection performance of near-threshold stimuli. Our results indicate SR effects in the peripheral and central nervous system.