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Journal Article

The architecture of national boundary regimes: mapping immigration and citizenship policies in 23 democracies 1980–2010


Schmid,  Samuel D.       
Ethics, Law and Politics, MPI for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity, Max Planck Society;

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Schmid, S. D. (2020). The architecture of national boundary regimes: mapping immigration and citizenship policies in 23 democracies 1980–2010. Comparative Migration Studies, 8: 25. doi:10.1186/s40878-020-00182-5.

Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0006-D4BD-6
In this article, I introduce a typology that maps the regulation of two fundamentalboundaries of modern nation-states regarding immigration: territorial boundaries andmembership boundaries. Based on a theory of the structural logics underlyingImmigration Regime Openness (IRO) and Citizenship Regime Inclusiveness (CRI), Imake four observations on the two-dimensional policy space determined by therelative porousness of these two boundaries. First, a Categorical Principal ComponentAnalysis (CATPCA) using a combination of original and existing panel data across 23liberal democracies from 1980 to 2010 confirms that IRO and CRI are internallyconsistent and statistically distinct dimensions. Immigration policies therefore appearmore coherent than often assumed. Second, the distribution of cases over the fourideal-typical policy configurations from 1980 to 2010 shows that more and morecases combine relatively liberal immigration policies with relatively liberal citizenshippolicies. Behind this finding are, third, overall liberalizing trajectories in both policiesas well as a pattern of convergence in immigration policies. The liberalisation ofimmigration policies is most notable until 1996 and the level of openness fluctuatesthereafter. Regarding citizenship, I provide evidence for a much-cited restrictive turnduring the 2000s. In addition, I show that there has already been a restrictive turn incitizenship during the 1990s. Fourth, instead of the trade-off anticipated by much ofthe literature, I find an increasingly positive correlation between IRO and CRI. Thenew typology, its underlying theory, and the subsequent findings significantly advanceour understanding of the most fundamental boundaries of modern nation-states.