Help Privacy Policy Disclaimer
  Advanced SearchBrowse




Journal Article

The mechanism of proton pumping by cytochrome c oxidase


Michel,  Hartmut       
Department of Molecular Membrane Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, Max Planck Society;

External Resource
No external resources are shared
Fulltext (restricted access)
There are currently no full texts shared for your IP range.
Fulltext (public)
There are no public fulltexts stored in PuRe
Supplementary Material (public)
There is no public supplementary material available

Michel, H. (1998). The mechanism of proton pumping by cytochrome c oxidase. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 95(22), 12819-12824. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.22.12819.

Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0006-F391-3
Cytochrome c oxidase catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water that is accompanied by pumping of four protons across the mitochondrial or bacterial membrane. Triggered by the results of recent x-ray crystallographic analyses, published data concerning the coupling of individual electron transfer steps to proton pumping are reanalyzed: Conversion of the conventional oxoferryl intermediate F to the fully oxidized form O is connected to pumping of only one proton. Most likely one proton is already pumped during the double reduction of O, and only three protons during conversion of the “peroxy” forms P to O via the oxoferryl form F. Based on the available structural, spectroscopic, and mutagenesis data, a detailed mechanistic model, carefully considering electrostatic interactions, is presented. In this model, each of the four reductions of heme a during the catalytic cycle is coupled to the uptake of one proton via the D-pathway. These protons, but never more than two, are temporarily stored in the regions of the heme a and a3 propionates and are driven to the outside (“pumped”) by electrostatic repulsion from protons entering the active site during turnover. The first proton is pumped by uptake of one proton via the K-pathway during reduction, the second and third proton during the P → F transition when the D-pathway and the active site become directly connected, and the fourth one upon conversion of F to O. Atomic structures are assigned to each intermediate including F′ with an alternative route to O.