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Evolutionary approaches to combat antibiotic resistance: opportunities and challenges for precision medicine

MPS-Authors
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Vallier,  Marie
Guest Group Evolutionary Genomics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, Max Planck Society;
IMPRS for Evolutionary Biology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, Max Planck Society;

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Unterweger,  Daniel
Guest Group Evolutionary Genomics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, Max Planck Society;

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Baines,  John F.
Guest Group Evolutionary Genomics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, Max Planck Society;

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Schulenburg,  Hinrich
Max Planck Fellow Group Antibiotic Resistance Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Merker, M., Tueffers, L., Vallier, M., Groth, E. E., Sonnenkalb, L., Unterweger, D., et al. (2020). Evolutionary approaches to combat antibiotic resistance: opportunities and challenges for precision medicine. Frontiers in immunology, 11: 1938. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2020.01938.


Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0007-1EEC-F
Abstract
The rise of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacterial pathogens is acknowledged by the WHO as a major global health crisis. It is estimated that in 2050 annually up to 10 million people will die from infections with drug resistant pathogens if no efficient countermeasures are implemented. Evolution of pathogens lies at the core of this crisis, which enables rapid adaptation to the selective pressures imposed by antimicrobial usage in both medical treatment and agriculture, consequently promoting the spread of resistance genes or alleles in bacterial populations. Approaches developed in the field of Evolutionary Medicine attempt to exploit evolutionary insight into these adaptive processes, with the aim to improve diagnostics and the sustainability of antimicrobial therapy. Here, we review the concept of evolutionary trade-offs in the development of AMR as well as new therapeutic approaches and their impact on host-microbiome-pathogen interactions. We further discuss the possible translation of evolution-informed treatments into clinical practice, considering both the rapid cure of the individual patients and the prevention of AMR.