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Large-format X-ray reflection grating operated in an echelle-like mounting

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Burwitz,  Vadim
High Energy Astrophysics, MPI for Extraterrestrial Physics, Max Planck Society;

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Hartner,  Gisela
High Energy Astrophysics, MPI for Extraterrestrial Physics, Max Planck Society;

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Pelliciari,  Carlo
High Energy Astrophysics, MPI for Extraterrestrial Physics, Max Planck Society;

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La Caria,  Marlis-Madeleine
High Energy Astrophysics, MPI for Extraterrestrial Physics, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

DeRoo, C. T., McEntaffer, R. L., Donovan, B. D., Grisé, F., Eichfeld, C., Burwitz, V., et al. (2020). Large-format X-ray reflection grating operated in an echelle-like mounting. The Astrophysical Journal, 897(1): 92. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab9a41.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0007-1FA8-A
Abstract
We report on resolving power measurements of an X-ray reflection grating designed for use in an astronomical soft X-ray spectrograph. The grating was patterned via electron-beam lithography (EBL) to have fanned grooves to match the convergence of an illuminating beam. Grating measurements were conducted in an echelle-like mounting, which yields access to high diffraction orders in the soft X-ray bandpass (0.2–2.0 keV). By comparing the zeroth-order line-spread function to the telescope focus, we find evidence for minimal broadening (<1'') introduced by the figure of the grating. In addition, we fit for the spectral resolution (R = λ/Δλ) intrinsic to this grating using a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach. Using an ensemble fitting technique, we find that the grating resolution R exceeds 2200 (3σ lower bound). This current grating resolution meets the performance required for a notional soft X-ray grating spectroscopy mission measuring hot baryonic material in the extended halos of galaxies. Using ray-trace simulations, we identify a geometric aberration resulting from path length differences across the width of the grating as a limiting factor in assessing the resolution of these gratings and discuss methods for placing better constraints on the inherent resolution of X-ray astronomical reflection gratings fabricated using EBL.