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SparseMaps—A systematic infrastructure for reduced-scaling electronic structure methods. III. Linear-scaling multireference domain-based pair natural orbital N-electron valence perturbation theory

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Guo,  Yang
Research Department Neese, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion, Max Planck Society;

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Sivalingam,  Kantharuban
Research Department Neese, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion, Max Planck Society;

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Neese,  Frank
Research Department Neese, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Guo, Y., Sivalingam, K., Valeev, E. F., & Neese, F. (2016). SparseMaps—A systematic infrastructure for reduced-scaling electronic structure methods. III. Linear-scaling multireference domain-based pair natural orbital N-electron valence perturbation theory. The Journal of Chemical Physics, 144(9): 094111. doi:10.1063/1.4942769.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0007-84FB-9
Abstract
Multi-reference (MR) electronic structure methods, such as MR configuration interaction or MR perturbation theory, can provide reliable energies and properties for many molecular phenomena like bond breaking, excited states, transition states or magnetic properties of transition metal complexes and clusters. However, owing to their inherent complexity, most MR methods are still too computationally expensive for large systems. Therefore the development of more computationally attractive MR approaches is necessary to enable routine application for large-scale chemical systems. Among the state-of-the-art MR methods, second-order N-electron valence state perturbation theory (NEVPT2) is an efficient, size-consistent, and intruder-state-free method. However, there are still two important bottlenecks in practical applications of NEVPT2 to large systems: (a) the high computational cost of NEVPT2 for large molecules, even with moderate active spaces and (b) the prohibitive cost for treating large active spaces. In this work, we address problem (a) by developing a linear scaling “partially contracted” NEVPT2 method. This development uses the idea of domain-based local pair natural orbitals (DLPNOs) to form a highly efficient algorithm. As shown previously in the framework of single-reference methods, the DLPNO concept leads to an enormous reduction in computational effort while at the same time providing high accuracy (approaching 99.9% of the correlation energy), robustness, and black-box character. In the DLPNO approach, the virtual space is spanned by pair natural orbitals that are expanded in terms of projected atomic orbitals in large orbital domains, while the inactive space is spanned by localized orbitals. The active orbitals are left untouched. Our implementation features a highly efficient “electron pair prescreening” that skips the negligible inactive pairs. The surviving pairs are treated using the partially contracted NEVPT2 formalism. A detailed comparison between the partial and strong contraction schemes is made, with conclusions that discourage the strong contraction scheme as a basis for local correlation methods due to its non-invariance with respect to rotations in the inactive and external subspaces. A minimal set of conservatively chosen truncation thresholds controls the accuracy of the method. With the default thresholds, about 99.9% of the canonical partially contracted NEVPT2 correlation energy is recovered while the crossover of the computational cost with the already very efficient canonical method occurs reasonably early; in linear chain type compounds at a chain length of around 80 atoms. Calculations are reported for systems with more than 300 atoms and 5400 basis functions.