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Conference Paper

Counterfactuals uncover the modular structure of deep generative models

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Besserve,  M
Department Physiology of Cognitive Processes, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Max Planck Society;
Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Max Planck Society;

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Mehrjou,  A.
Dept. Empirical Inference, Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Max Planck Society;

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Schölkopf,  B
Dept. Empirical Inference, Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Besserve, M., Mehrjou, A., Sun, R., & Schölkopf, B. (2020). Counterfactuals uncover the modular structure of deep generative models. In Eighth International Conference on Learning Representations (ICLR 2020).


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0007-8B6A-6
Abstract
Deep generative models can emulate the perceptual properties of complex image datasets, providing a latent representation of the data. However, manipulating such representation to perform meaningful and controllable transformations in the data space remains challenging without some form of supervision. While previous work has focused on exploiting statistical independence to \textit{disentangle} latent factors, we argue that such requirement can be advantageously relaxed and propose instead a non-statistical framework that relies on identifying a modular organization of the network, based on counterfactual manipulations. Our experiments support that modularity between groups of channels is achieved to a certain degree on a variety of generative models. This allowed the design of targeted interventions on complex image datasets, opening the way to applications such as computationally efficient style transfer and the automated assessment of robustness to contextual changes in pattern recognition systems.