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Energetic management in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire

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Valé,  Prince D.
Chimpanzees, Department of Primatology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Max Planck Society;

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Crockford,  Catherine       
Chimpanzees, Department of Primatology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Max Planck Society;
Department of Human Behavior Ecology and Culture, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Max Planck Society;

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Deschner,  Tobias       
Endocrinology Laboratory, Department of Primatology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Max Planck Society;
Chimpanzees, Department of Primatology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Max Planck Society;

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Girard-Buttoz,  Cédric       
Chimpanzees, Department of Primatology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Max Planck Society;

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Wittig,  Roman M.       
Chimpanzees, Department of Primatology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Max Planck Society;

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Vale_Energetic_BehEcolSociobiol_2021.pdf
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Citation

Valé, P. D., Béné, J.-C.-K., N’Guessan, A. K., Crockford, C., Deschner, T., Koné, I., et al. (2021). Energetic management in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 75: 1. doi:10.1007/s00265-020-02935-9.


Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0007-8D50-0
Abstract
Socioecological theories predict that, in mammals, feeding and mating competitions affect male and female energetic conditions differently but energetic studies investigating both sexes simultaneously are rare. We investigated the effect of socioecological factors on the energetic conditions of male and female western chimpanzees, a long-lived species with high degrees of male-male competition. We used behavioural data collected on one chimpanzee community in the Taï National Park over 12 months, phenological data and urinary c-peptide (UCP) measures, a marker of energy balance. We found a positive effect of food availability on UCP levels in both sexes. Dominance rank also affected chimpanzee UCP levels. High-ranking females had higher UCP levels than low-ranking ones but only in periods when no oestrus females were present in the community. In contrast, high-ranking males had higher UCP levels than low-ranking males in the presence of oestrus females but lower UCP levels in their absence. Our results suggest that oestrus female presence lessened the competitive advantages of high-ranking females in feeding competition and that low-ranking males bore higher energetic costs related to mating competition than high-ranking ones. Yet caution should apply in interpreting these results since the statistical model was only close to significance. High-ranking male and female chimpanzees spent significantly less energy. Furthermore, all chimpanzees significantly spent less time feeding and spent more energy when food availability was high. Finally, our behavioural measure of energy intake and expenditure did not correlate with UCP levels highlighting the value of non-invasive hormonal markers for field studies.