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Preprocessing of vector magnetograms for magnetohydrostatic extrapolations

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Zhu,  Xiaoshuai
Department Sun and Heliosphere, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max Planck Society;

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Wiegelmann,  Thomas
Department Sun and Heliosphere, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max Planck Society;

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Inhester,  Bernd
Department Sun and Heliosphere, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Zhu, X., Wiegelmann, T., & Inhester, B. (2020). Preprocessing of vector magnetograms for magnetohydrostatic extrapolations. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 644: A57. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202039079.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0007-A847-C
Abstract
Context. Understanding the 3D magnetic field as well as the plasma in the chromosphere and transition region is important. One way is to extrapolate the magnetic field and plasma from the routinely measured vector magnetogram on the photosphere based on the assumption of the magnetohydrostatic (MHS) state. However, photospheric data may be inconsistent with the MHS assumption. Therefore, we must study the restriction on the photospheric magnetic field, which is required by the MHS system. Moreover, the data should be transformed accordingly before MHS extrapolations can be applied. Aims. We aim to obtain a set of surface integrals as criteria for the MHS system and use this set of integrals to preprocess a vector magnetogram. Methods. By applying Gauss’ theorem and assuming an isolated active region on the Sun, we related the magnetic energy and forces in the volume to the surface integral on the photosphere. The same method was applied to obtain restrictions on the photospheric magnetic field as necessary criteria for a MHS system. We used an optimization method to preprocess the data to minimize the deviation from the criteria as well as the measured value. Results. By applying the virial theorem to the active region, we find the boundary integral that is used to compute the energy of a force-free field usually underestimates the magnetic energy of a large active region. We also find that the MHS assumption only requires the x-, y-component of net Lorentz force and the z-component of net torque to be zero. These zero components are part of Aly’s criteria for a force-free field. However, other components of net force and torque can be non-zero values. According to new criteria, we preprocess the magnetogram to make it more consistent with the MHS system and, at the same time close, to the original data.