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An unbiased molecular approach using 3’-UTRs resolves the avian family-level tree of life

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Kuhl,  H.
Sequencing (Head: Bernd Timmermann), Scientific Service (Head: Christoph Krukenkamp), Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Max Planck Society;

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Frankl-Vilches,  Carolina
Abteilung Gahr, Seewiesen, Max Planck Institut für Ornithologie, Max Planck Society;

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Bakker,  Antje
Abteilung Gahr, Seewiesen, Max Planck Institut für Ornithologie, Max Planck Society;

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Boerno,  S. T.
Sequencing (Head: Bernd Timmermann), Scientific Service (Head: Christoph Krukenkamp), Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Max Planck Society;

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Klages,  S.
Sequencing (Head: Bernd Timmermann), Scientific Service (Head: Christoph Krukenkamp), Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Max Planck Society;

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Timmermann,  B.
Sequencing (Head: Bernd Timmermann), Scientific Service (Head: Christoph Krukenkamp), Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Max Planck Society;

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Gahr,  Manfred
Abteilung Gahr, Seewiesen, Max Planck Institut für Ornithologie, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Kuhl, H., Frankl-Vilches, C., Bakker, A., Mayr, G., Nikolaus, G., Boerno, S. T., et al. (2021). An unbiased molecular approach using 3’-UTRs resolves the avian family-level tree of life. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 38(1), 108-127. doi:10.1093/molbev/msaa191.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0007-B72A-C
Abstract
Presumably, due to a rapid early diversification, major parts of the higher-level phylogeny of birds are still resolved controversially in different analyses or are considered unresolvable. To address this problem, we produced an avian tree of life, which includes molecular sequences of one or several species of ∼90% of the currently recognized family-level taxa (429 species, 379 genera) including all 106 family-level taxa of the nonpasserines and 115 of the passerines (Passeriformes). The unconstrained analyses of noncoding 3-prime untranslated region (3′-UTR) sequences and those of coding sequences yielded different trees. In contrast to the coding sequences, the 3′-UTR sequences resulted in a well-resolved and stable tree topology. The 3′-UTR contained, unexpectedly, transcription factor binding motifs that were specific for different higher-level taxa. In this tree, grebes and flamingos are the sister clade of all other Neoaves, which are subdivided into five major clades. All nonpasserine taxa were placed with robust statistical support including the long-time enigmatic hoatzin (Opisthocomiformes), which was found being the sister taxon of the Caprimulgiformes. The comparatively late radiation of family-level clades of the songbirds (oscine Passeriformes) contrasts with the attenuated diversification of nonpasseriform taxa since the early Miocene. This correlates with the evolution of vocal production learning, an important speciation factor, which is ancestral for songbirds and evolved convergent only in hummingbirds and parrots. As 3′-UTR-based phylotranscriptomics resolved the avian family-level tree of life, we suggest that this procedure will also resolve the all-species avian tree of life.