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Deep Thermohaline Circulation Across the Closure of the Central American Seaway

MPS-Authors
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Ogretmen,  N.
Climate Geochemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons192728

Schiebel,  R.
Climate Geochemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons101034

Jochum,  K. P.
Climate Geochemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons101291

Stoll,  B.
Climate Geochemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons101360

Weis,  U.
Climate Geochemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Repschläger,  J.
Climate Geochemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Jentzen,  A.
Climate Geochemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons206822

Galer,  S.
Climate Geochemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons187781

Haug,  G. H.
Climate Geochemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Ogretmen, N., Schiebel, R., Jochum, K. P., Stoll, B., Weis, U., Repschläger, J., et al. (2020). Deep Thermohaline Circulation Across the Closure of the Central American Seaway. Paleoceanography and paleoclimatology, 35(12): e2020PA004049. doi:10.1029/2020PA004049.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0007-D382-7
Abstract
The closure of the Central American Seaway (CAS) resulted in changes of ocean‐climate dynamics since the late Miocene following the uplift of northern Andes. Reconstructing the bottom‐water temperatures (BWTs) of the Caribbean Sea illustrates feedbacks of the closure on the ocean‐climate system including deep‐water dynamics of the Caribbean Sea. Here, Mg/Ca‐derived BWTs of the Plio‐Pleistocene Caribbean Sea from the benthic foraminifer Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi are presented for the first time and interpreted along with Na/Ca and Sr/Ca as proxies of salinity and continental input, respectively. Our results highlight several warm (93, Gi15‐19, and N1) and cool (92, M2, Gi20, and CN4) marine isotope stages (MISs). Accordingly, changes in the circulation of deep‐water masses during the CAS closure developed in four main time intervals: (I) between 5.2 and 4.1 Ma (million years ago) BWT was ~1.1°C, (II) 4.1–3.2 Ma ~2.1°C, (III) 3.2–2.7 Ma ~2.7°C, and (IV) 2.7–2.2 Ma ~2.1°C. Relatively higher, gradually increased temperatures between 3.2 and 2.7 Ma correspond to late Pliocene warmth and restricted inflow of Pacific waters into the Caribbean due to shoaling of the CAS. In addition, Sr/Ca values reveal gradually escalating terrigenous input until 2.7 Ma most likely related to the increased river discharge in response to the Andean uplift. The gradual decrease of the BWTs from 2.7 Ma may have resulted from the onset of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation. Overall, BWTs match with previous sea surface temperatures from the planktic foraminifer Neogloboquadrina dutertrei. The BWTs presented here confirm intensified thermohaline circulation during the overall Pliocene warmth with increased bottom‐water Na/Ca values indicating enhanced salinity.