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Cell wall-derived mixed-linked β-1,3/1,4-glucans trigger immune responses and disease resistance in plants

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Dallabernardina,  Pietro
Fabian Pfrengle, Biomolekulare Systeme, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Max Planck Society;

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Pfrengle,  Fabian
Fabian Pfrengle, Biomolekulare Systeme, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Rebaque, D., del Hierro, I., López, G., Bacete, L., Vilaplana, F., Dallabernardina, P., et al. (2021). Cell wall-derived mixed-linked β-1,3/1,4-glucans trigger immune responses and disease resistance in plants. The Plant Journal. doi:10.1111/tpj.15185.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0007-F024-1
Abstract
Summary Pattern-Triggered Immunity (PTI) is activated in plants upon recognition by Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) of Damage- and Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs and MAMPs) derived from plants or microorganisms, respectively. To better understand plants mechanisms involved in the perception of carbohydrate based-structures recognised as DAMPs/MAMPs, we have studied the ability of mixed-linked β-1,3/1,4-glucans (MLGs), present in some plant and microbial cell walls, to trigger immune responses and disease resistance in plants. A range of MLG structures were tested for their capacity to induce PTI hallmarks, such as cytoplasmic Ca2+ elevations, reactive oxygen species production, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, and gene transcriptional reprogramming. These analyses revealed that MLG oligosaccharides are perceived by Arabidopsis thaliana and identified a trisaccharide, β-D-cellobiosyl-(1,3)-β-D-glucose (MLG43), as the smallest MLG structure triggering strong PTI responses. These MLG43-mediated PTI responses are partially dependent on LysM PRRs CERK1, LYK4 and LYK5, since they were weaker in cerk1 and lyk4 lyk5 mutants than in wild-type plants. Cross-elicitation experiments between MLG43 and the carbohydrate MAMP chitohexaose [β-1,4-D-(GlcNAc)6], that is also perceived by these LysM PRRs, indicated that the mechanism of MLG43 recognition could differ from that of chitohexaose, that is fully impaired in cerk1 and lyk4 lyk5 plants. MLG43 treatment confers enhanced disease resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana to the oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis and in tomato and pepper to different bacterial and fungal pathogens. Our data support the classification of MLGs as a group of carbohydrate-based molecular patterns that are perceived by plants and trigger immune responses and disease resistance.