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Journal Article

The distinctive constitution of feeling hurt: A Review and a Lazarian theory

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Hardecker, D. J. K. (2020). The distinctive constitution of feeling hurt: A Review and a Lazarian theory. European Psychologist, 25, 293-305. doi:10.1027/1016-9040/a000390.

Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0007-F042-F
What is the nature of feeling hurt? This question is answered by systematically reviewing and integrating theories and empirical findings on feeling hurt using Lazarus’ theory of emotion. Following this approach, feeling hurt is constituted by a primary appraisal of an illegitimate devaluation and by a secondary appraisal of low controllability. This appraisal pattern activates an action tendency to withdraw from an interaction. This theory leads to several hypotheses for the appraisal (e.g., that an increase in appraisals of controllability should turn hurt into anger) on facial, bodily, and behavioral expressions as well as on the communicative function of feeling hurt. Furthermore, important conceptual distinctions between a broad and a narrow concept of feeling hurt as well as between feeling hurt as an emotion and a long-term emotional episode of hurt are introduced. Finally, feeling hurt is compared with humiliation, shame, guilt, disappointment, sadness, and anger.