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Reactive nitrogen around the Arabian Peninsula and in the Mediterranean Sea during the 2017 AQABA ship campaign

MPS-Authors
/persons/resource/persons239549

Friedrich,  Nils
Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons230536

Eger,  Philipp
Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons239551

Shenolikar,  Justin
Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons203115

Sobanski,  Nicolas
Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons203248

Schuladen,  Jan
Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons239557

Dienhart,  Dirk
Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons204321

Hottmann,  Bettina
Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons192706

Tadic,  Ivan
Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons100935

Fischer,  Horst
Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons101122

Martinez,  Monica
Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons239553

Rohloff,  Roland
Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons230525

Tauer,  Sebastian
Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons100983

Harder,  Hartwig
Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons207351

Pfannerstill,  Eva Y.
Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons239555

Wang,  Nijing
Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons101364

Williams,  Jonathan
Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons100914

Drewnick,  Frank
Particle Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons101295

Su,  Hang
Multiphase Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons204129

Li,  Guo
Multiphase Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons127588

Cheng,  Yafang
Multiphase Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons101104

Lelieveld,  Jos
Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons100898

Crowley,  John N.
Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Friedrich, N., Eger, P., Shenolikar, J., Sobanski, N., Schuladen, J., Dienhart, D., et al. (2021). Reactive nitrogen around the Arabian Peninsula and in the Mediterranean Sea during the 2017 AQABA ship campaign. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 21. doi:10.5194/acp-2021-42.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0007-F319-B
Abstract
We present ship-borne measurements of NOx (≡ NO + NO2) and NOy (≡ NOx + gas- and particle-phase organic and inorganic oxides of nitrogen) in summer 2017 as part of the expedition "Air Quality and climate change in the Arabian Basin" (AQABA). The NOx and NOz (≡ NOy–NOx) measurements, made with a thermal dissociation cavity-ringdown-spectrometer (TD-CRDS), were used to examine the chemical mechanisms involved in the processing of primary NOx emissions and their influence on the NOy budget in chemically distinct marine environments, including the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea, and the Arabian Gulf which were influenced to varying extents by emissions from shipping and oil and gas production. In all regions, we find that NOx is strongly connected to ship emissions, both via direct emission of NO and via the formation of HONO and its subsequent photolytic conversion to NO. Mean NO2 lifetimes were 3.9 hours in the Mediterranean Sea, 4.0 hours in the Arabian Gulf and 5.0 hours in the Red Sea area. The cumulative loss of NO2 during the night (reaction with O3) was more important than daytime losses (reaction with OH) over the Arabian Gulf (by a factor 2.8) and over the Red Sea (factor 2.9), whereas over the Mediterranean Sea, where OH levels were high, daytime losses dominated (factor 2.5). Regional ozone production efficiencies (OPE) ranged from 10.5 ± 0.9 to 19.1 ± 1.1. This metric quantifies the relative strength of photochemical O3 production from NOx, compared to the competing sequestering into NOz species. The largest values were found over the Arabian Gulf, consistent with high levels of O3 found in that region (10–90 percentiles range: 23–108 ppbv). The fractional contribution of individual NOz species to NOy exhibited a large regional variability, with HNO3 generally the dominant component (on average 33 % of NOy) with significant contributions from organic nitrates (11 %) and particulate nitrates in the PM1 size range (8 %).