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Efficient time-dependent density functional theory approximations for hybrid density functionals: Analytical gradients and parallelization

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Petrenko,  Taras
Research Department Wieghardt, Max Planck Institute for Bioinorganic Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Kossmann,  Simone
Research Department Neese, Max Planck Institute for Bioinorganic Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Neese,  Frank
Research Department Neese, Max Planck Institute for Bioinorganic Chemistry, Max Planck Society;
Lehrstuhl für Theoretische Chemie, Institut für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universität Bonn;

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Citation

Petrenko, T., Kossmann, S., & Neese, F. (2011). Efficient time-dependent density functional theory approximations for hybrid density functionals: Analytical gradients and parallelization. The Journal of Chemical Physics, 134(5): 054116. doi:10.1063/1.3533441.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0007-FFB4-F
Abstract
In this paper, we present the implementation of efficient approximations to time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) within the Tamm–Dancoff approximation (TDA) for hybrid density functionals. For the calculation of the TDDFT/TDA excitation energies and analytical gradients, we combine the resolution of identity (RI-J) algorithm for the computation of the Coulomb terms and the recently introduced “chain of spheres exchange” (COSX) algorithm for the calculation of the exchange terms. It is shown that for extended basis sets, the RIJCOSX approximation leads to speedups of up to 2 orders of magnitude compared to traditional methods, as demonstrated for hydrocarbon chains. The accuracy of the adiabatic transition energies, excited state structures, and vibrational frequencies is assessed on a set of 27 excited states for 25 molecules with the configuration interaction singles and hybrid TDDFT/TDA methods using various basis sets. Compared to the canonical values, the typical error in transition energies is of the order of 0.01 eV. Similar to the ground-state results, excited state equilibrium geometries differ by less than 0.3 pm in the bond distances and 0.5° in the bond angles from the canonical values. The typical error in the calculated excited state normal coordinate displacements is of the order of 0.01, and relative error in the calculated excited state vibrational frequencies is less than 1%. The errors introduced by the RIJCOSX approximation are, thus, insignificant compared to the errors related to the approximate nature of the TDDFT methods and basis set truncation. For TDDFT/TDA energy and gradient calculations on Ag-TB2-helicate (156 atoms, 2732 basis functions), it is demonstrated that the COSX algorithm parallelizes almost perfectly (speedup ∼26–29 for 30 processors). The exchange-correlation terms also parallelize well (speedup ∼27–29 for 30 processors). The solution of the Z-vector equations shows a speedup of ∼24 on 30 processors. The parallelization efficiency for the Coulomb terms can be somewhat smaller (speedup ∼15–25 for 30 processors), but their contribution to the total calculation time is small. Thus, the parallel program completes a Becke3-Lee-Yang-Parr energy and gradient calculation on the Ag-TB2-helicate in less than 4 h on 30 processors. We also present the necessary extension of the Lagrangian formalism, which enables the calculation of the TDDFT excited state properties in the frozen-core approximation. The algorithms described in this work are implemented into the ORCA electronic structure system.