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Influence of Mixed Thiolate/Thioether versus Dithiolate Coordination on the Accessibility of the Uncommon +I and +III Oxidation States for the Nickel Ion: An Experimental and Computational Study

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Bothe,  Eberhard
Research Department Wieghardt, Max Planck Institute for Bioinorganic Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Neese,  Frank
Lehrstuhl für Theoretische Chemie, Institut für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universität Bonn, Wegelerstrasse 12, D-53115 Bonn, Germany;
Research Department Wieghardt, Max Planck Institute for Bioinorganic Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Gennari, M., Orio, M., Pécaut, J., Bothe, E., Neese, F., Collomb, M.-N., et al. (2011). Influence of Mixed Thiolate/Thioether versus Dithiolate Coordination on the Accessibility of the Uncommon +I and +III Oxidation States for the Nickel Ion: An Experimental and Computational Study. Inorganic Chemistry, 50(8), 3707-3716. doi:10.1021/ic200063d.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0007-FF4D-5
Abstract
Sulfur-rich nickel metalloenzymes are capable of stabilizing NiI and NiIII oxidation states in catalytically relevant species. In an effort to better understand the structural and electronic features that allow the stabilization of such species, we have investigated the electrochemical properties of two mononuclear N2S2 NiII complexes that differ in their sulfur environment. Complex 1 features aliphatic dithiolate coordination ([NiL], 1), and complex 2I is characterized by mixed thiolate/thioether coordination ([NiLMe]I, 2I). The latter results from the methylation of a single sulfur of 1. The X-ray structure of 2I reveals a distorted square planar geometry around the NiII ion, similar to what was previously reported by us for 1. The electrochemical investigation of 1 and 2+ shows that the addition of a methyl group shifts the potentials of both redox NiII/NiI and NiIII/NiII redox couples by about 0.7 and 0.6 V to more positive values. Through bulk electrolyses, only the mononuclear dithiolate [NiIL] (1-) and the mixed thiolate/thioether [NiIIILMe]2+ (22+) complexes were generated, and their electronic properties were investigated by UV−vis and EPR spectroscopy. For 1- (NiI, d9 configuration) the EPR data are consistent with a dx2-y2 based singly occupied molecular orbitals (SOMOs). However, DFT calculations suggest that there is also pronounced radical character. This is consistent with the small g-anisotropy observed in the EPR experiments. The spin population (Mulliken analysis) analysis of 1- reveals that the main contribution to the SOMO (64%) is due to the bipyridine unit. Time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations attribute the most prominent features observed in the electronic absorption spectrum of 1- to metal to ligand charge transfer (MLCT) transitions. Concerning 22+, the EPR spectrum displays a rhombic signal with gx = 2.236, gy = 2.180, and gz = 2.039 in CH3CN. The giso value is larger than 2.0, which is consistent with metal based oxidation. The unpaired electron (NiIII, d7 configuration) occupies a Ni-dz2 based molecular orbital, consistent with DFT calculations. Nitrogen hyperfine structure is observed as a triplet in the gz component of the EPR spectrum with AN = 51 MHz. This result indicates the coordination of a CH3CN molecule in the axial position. DFT calculations confirm that the presence of a fifth ligand in the coordination sphere of the Ni ion is required for the metal-based oxidation process. Finally, we have shown that 1 exhibits catalytic reductive dehalogenation activity below potentials of −2.00 V versus Fc/Fc+ in CH2Cl2.