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Influence of pore architecture and chemical structure on the sodium storage in nitrogen-doped hard carbons

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Schutjajew,  Konstantin
Martin Oschatz, Kolloidchemie, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Max Planck Society;

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Pampel,  Jonas
Martin Oschatz, Kolloidchemie, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Max Planck Society;

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Zhang,  Wuyong
Martin Oschatz, Kolloidchemie, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Max Planck Society;

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Antonietti,  Markus
Markus Antonietti, Kolloidchemie, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Max Planck Society;

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Oschatz,  Martin
Martin Oschatz, Kolloidchemie, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Schutjajew, K., Pampel, J., Zhang, W., Antonietti, M., & Oschatz, M. (2021). Influence of pore architecture and chemical structure on the sodium storage in nitrogen-doped hard carbons. Small, 2006767. doi:10.1002/smll.202006767.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0008-1CAF-5
Abstract
Hard carbon is the material of choice for sodium ion battery anodes. Capacities comparable to those of lithium/graphite can be reached, but the understanding of the underlying sodium storage mechanisms remains fragmentary. A two-step process is commonly observed, where sodium first adsorbs to polar sites of the carbon (“sloping region”) and subsequently fills small voids in the material (“plateau region”). To study the impact of nitrogen functionalities and pore geometry on sodium storage, a systematic series of nitrogen-doped hard carbons is synthesized. The nitrogen content is found to contribute to sloping capacity by binding sodium ions at edges and defects, whereas higher plateau capacities are found for materials with less nitrogen content and more extensive graphene layers, suggesting the formation of 2D sodium structures stabilized by graphene-like pore walls. In fact, up to 84% of the plateau capacity is measured at potentials less than 0 V versus metallic Na, that is, quasimetallic sodium can be stabilized in such structure motifs. Finally, gas physisorption measurements are related to charge–discharge data to identify the energy storage relevant pore architectures. Interestingly, these are pores inaccessible to probe gases and electrolytes, suggesting a new view on such “closed pores” required for efficient sodium storage.