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Discovery of semi- and fully-synthetic carbohydrate vaccines against bacterial infections using a medicinal chemistry approach

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Seeberger,  Peter H.
Peter H. Seeberger - Vaccine Development, Biomolekulare Systeme, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Seeberger, P. H. (2021). Discovery of semi- and fully-synthetic carbohydrate vaccines against bacterial infections using a medicinal chemistry approach. Chemical Reviews, 121(7), 3598-3626. doi:10.1021/acs.chemrev.0c01210.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0008-413B-D
Abstract
The glycocalyx, a thick layer of carbohydrates, surrounds the cell wall of most bacterial and parasitic pathogens. Recognition of these unique glycans by the human immune system results in destruction of the invaders. To elicit a protective immune response, polysaccharides either isolated from the bacterial cell surface or conjugated with a carrier protein, for T-cell help, are administered. Conjugate vaccines based on isolated carbohydrates currently protect millions of people against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and Neisseria meningitides infections. Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are increasingly discovered by medicinal chemistry and synthetic in origin, rather than isolated from natural sources. Converting vaccines from biologicals to pharmaceuticals requires a fundamental understanding of how the human immune system recognizes carbohydrates and could now be realized. To illustrate the chemistry-based approach to vaccine discovery, I summarize efforts focusing on synthetic glycan-based medicinal chemistry to understand the mammalian antiglycan immune response and define glycan epitopes for novel synthetic glycoconjugate vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Clostridium difficile, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and other bacteria. The chemical tools described here help us gain fundamental insights into how the human system recognizes carbohydrates and drive the discovery of carbohydrate vaccines.