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Multichannel optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway using microfabricated LED cochlear implants in rodents

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Moser,  T.
Research Group of Synaptic Nanophysiology, MPI for Biophysical Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Keppeler, D., Schwaerzle, M., Harczos, T., Jablonski, L., Dieter, A., Wolf, B., et al. (2020). Multichannel optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway using microfabricated LED cochlear implants in rodents. Science Translational Medicine, 12(553): eabb8086. doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.abb8086.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0008-65ED-C
Abstract
When hearing fails, electrical cochlear implants (eCIs) provide the brain with auditory information. One important bottleneck of CIs is the poor spectral selectivity that results from the wide current spread from each of the electrode contacts. Optical CIs (oCIs) promise to make better use of the tonotopic order of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) inside the cochlea by spatially confined stimulation. Here, we established multichannel oCIs based on light-emitting diode (LED) arrays and used them for optical stimulation of channelrhodopsin (ChR)−expressing SGNs in rodents. Power-efficient blue LED chips were integrated onto microfabricated 15-μm-thin polyimide-based carriers comprising interconnecting lines to address individual LEDs by a stationary or mobile driver circuitry. We extensively characterized the optoelectronic, thermal, and mechanical properties of the oCIs and demonstrated stability over weeks in vitro. We then implanted the oCIs into ChR-expressing rats and gerbils, and characterized multichannel optogenetic SGN stimulation by electrophysiological and behavioral experiments. Improved spectral selectivity was directly demonstrated by recordings from the auditory midbrain. Long-term experiments in deafened ChR-expressing rats and in nontreated control animals demonstrated specificity of optogenetic stimulation. Behavioral studies on animals carrying a wireless oCI sound processor revealed auditory percepts. This study demonstrates hearing restoration with improved spectral selectivity by an LED-based multichannel oCI system.