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Book Chapter

Transport Behavior of Asymmetric Polyamide Flat Sheet Membranes and Hollow-Fine Fibers in Dialysis-Osmosis and Hyperfiltration Experiments


Pusch,  Wolfgang
Department of Physical Chemistry, Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, Max Planck Society;

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Pusch, W. (1980). Transport Behavior of Asymmetric Polyamide Flat Sheet Membranes and Hollow-Fine Fibers in Dialysis-Osmosis and Hyperfiltration Experiments. In A. R. Cooper (Ed.), Ultrafiltration Membranes and Applications, In: Polymer Science and Technology Series (pp. 129-140). Boston, MA: Springer.

Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0008-7089-F
Using 0.1 molar brine solutions of NaCl, Na2SO4, MgSO4, NaNO3, CaCl2, Na3PO4, and AlCl3, the transport parameters of the phenomenological relationships such as the the hydrodynamic, ℓp, and the osmotic, ℓπ, permeability as well as the asymptotic salt rejection, r, were determined for asymmetric Du Pont Aramid (B-9) flat sheet membranes by means of hyperfiltration experiments. Moreover, the same transport parameters were obtained for hollow-fine fiber modules made from the same polymer (B-9) as well as the polymer employed in seawater devices (B-10) using 0.1 molar and 0.5 molar NaCl brine solutions. In addition, the transport parameter ℓp, and the reflection coefficient σ were measured in dialysis-osmolis experiments as functions of NaCl concentration using flat sheet membranes (B-9) and applying different boundary conditions.

The asymptotic salt rejection, r, is always beyond 0.9800 for all the salts used. Depending on the membrane sample, even values beyond 0.9900 are obtained for the different salts. The experimental findings clearly demonstrate that there is no qualitative nor quantitative difference between flat sheet membranes and hollow-fine fibers if the comparison is made on the basis of those transport parameters which do not depend on the thickness of the active layer such as the salt permeability, Ps, for instance. The hydrodynamic permeability of the polyamide membranes used varies drastically with the salt applied due to swelling effects. The lowest hydrodynamic permeability results for Na3PO4 while the largest value is obtained with NaCl brine solutions. Furthermore, the flat sheet membranes exhibit strong asymmetry effects in dialysis-osmosis experiments under boundary conditions far from near-equilibrium. These asymmetry effects originate from concentration polarization effects in the porous matrix of the asymmetric membranes.