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Journal Article

Forbidden hugs in pandemic times: I. Luminous red nova AT 2019zhd, a new merger in M 31


Mazzali,  P. A.
Stellar Astrophysics, MPI for Astrophysics, Max Planck Society;

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Pastorello, A., Fraser, M., Valerin, G., Reguitti, A., Itagaki, K., Ochner, P., et al. (2021). Forbidden hugs in pandemic times: I. Luminous red nova AT 2019zhd, a new merger in M 31. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 646: A119. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202039952.

Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0008-9669-9
We present the follow-up campaign of the luminous red nova (LRN) AT 2019zhd, the third event of this class observed in M 31. The object was followed by several sky surveys for about five months before the outburst, during which it showed a slow luminosity rise. In this phase, the absolute magnitude ranged from Mr = −2.8 ± 0.2 mag to Mr = −5.6 ± 0.1 mag. Then, over a four to five day period, AT 2019zhd experienced a major brightening, reaching a peak of Mr = −9.61 ± 0.08 mag and an optical luminosity of 1.4 × 1039 erg s−1. After a fast decline, the light curve settled onto a short-duration plateau in the red bands. Although less pronounced, this feature is reminiscent of the second red maximum observed in other LRNe. This phase was followed by a rapid linear decline in all bands. At maximum, the spectra show a blue continuum with prominent Balmer emission lines. The post-maximum spectra show a much redder continuum, resembling that of an intermediate-type star. In this phase, Hα becomes very weak, Hβ is no longer detectable, and a forest of narrow absorption metal lines now dominate the spectrum. The latest spectra, obtained during the post-plateau decline, show a very red continuum (Teff ≈ 3000 K) with broad molecular bands of TiO, similar to those of M-type stars. The long-lasting, slow photometric rise observed before the peak resembles that of LRN V1309 Sco, which was interpreted as the signature of the common-envelope ejection. The subsequent outburst is likely due to the gas outflow following a stellar merging event. The inspection of archival HST images taken 22 years before the LRN discovery reveals a faint red source (MF555W = 0.21 ± 0.14 mag, with F555W − F814W = 2.96 ± 0.12 mag) at the position of AT 2019zhd, which is the most likely quiescent precursor. The source is consistent with expectations for a binary system including a predominant M5-type star.