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Modeling Stellar Ca ii H and K Emission Variations. I. Effect of Inclination on the S-index

MPS-Authors

Sowmya,  K.
IMPRS on Physical Processes in the Solar System and Beyond, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max Planck Society;

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Shapiro,  Alexander
Max Planck Research Group in Solar Variability and Climate, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max Planck Society;

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Witzke,  V.
Department Sun and Heliosphere, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max Planck Society;

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Nèmec,  Nina-Elisabeth
Department Sun and Heliosphere, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max Planck Society;

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Chatzistergos,  T.
Department Sun and Heliosphere, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max Planck Society;

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Yeo,  K. L.
Max Planck Research Group in Solar Variability and Climate, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max Planck Society;

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Krivova,  N. A.
Max Planck Research Group in Solar Variability and Climate, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max Planck Society;

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Solanki,  S. K.
Department Sun and Heliosphere, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Sowmya, K., Shapiro, A., Witzke, V., Nèmec, N.-E., Chatzistergos, T., Yeo, K. L., et al. (2021). Modeling Stellar Ca ii H and K Emission Variations. I. Effect of Inclination on the S-index. The Astrophysical Journal, 914(1): 21. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/abf247.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0008-B60E-C
Abstract
The emission in the near-ultraviolet Ca ii H and K lines is modulated by stellar magnetic activity. Although this emission, quantified via the S-index, has been serving as a prime proxy of stellar magnetic activity for several decades, many aspects of the complex relation between stellar magnetism and Ca ii H and K emission are still unclear. The amount of measured Ca ii H and K emission is suspected to be affected not only by the stellar intrinsic properties but also by the inclination angle of the stellar rotation axis. Until now, such an inclination effect on the S-index has remained largely unexplored. To fill this gap, we develop a physics-based model to calculate S-index, focusing on the Sun. Using the distributions of solar magnetic features derived from observations together with Ca ii H and K spectra synthesized in non-local thermodynamic equilibrium, we validate our model by successfully reconstructing the observed variations of the solar S-index over four activity cycles. Further, using the distribution of magnetic features over the visible solar disk obtained from surface flux transport simulations, we obtain S-index time series dating back to 1700 and investigate the effect of inclination on S-index variability on both the magnetic activity cycle and the rotational timescales. We find that when going from an equatorial to a pole-on view, the amplitude of S-index variations decreases weakly on the activity cycle timescale and strongly on the rotational timescale (by about 22% and 81%, respectively, for a cycle of intermediate strength). The absolute value of the S-index depends only weakly on the inclination. We provide analytical expressions that model such dependencies.