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Journal Article

A Novel NAD-RNA Decapping Pathway Discovered by Synthetic Light-Up NAD-RNAs

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Abele, F., Hoefer, K., Bernhard, P., Grawenhoff, J., Seidel, M., Krause, A., et al. (2020). A Novel NAD-RNA Decapping Pathway Discovered by Synthetic Light-Up NAD-RNAs. BIOMOLECULES, 10(4): 513. doi:10.3390/biom10040513.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0008-F2A5-C
Abstract
The complexity of the transcriptome is governed by the intricate interplay of transcription, RNA processing, translocation, and decay. In eukaryotes, the removal of the 5'-RNA cap is essential for the initiation of RNA degradation. In addition to the canonical 5'-N7-methyl guanosine cap in eukaryotes, the ubiquitous redox cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) was identified as a new 5'-RNA cap structure in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. So far, two classes of NAD-RNA decapping enzymes have been identified, namely Nudix enzymes that liberate nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) and DXO-enzymes that remove the entire NAD cap. Herein, we introduce 8-(furan-2-yl)-substituted NAD-capped-RNA ((Fur)NAD-RNA) as a new research tool for the identification and characterization of novel NAD-RNA decapping enzymes. These compounds are found to be suitable for various enzymatic reactions that result in the release of a fluorescence quencher, either nicotinamide (NAM) or nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), from the RNA which causes a fluorescence turn-on. (Fur)NAD-RNAs allow for real-time quantification of decapping activity, parallelization, high-throughput screening and identification of novel decapping enzymes in vitro. Using (Fur)NAD-RNAs, we discovered that the eukaryotic glycohydrolase CD38 processes NAD-capped RNA in vitro into ADP-ribose-modified-RNA and nicotinamide and therefore might act as a decapping enzyme in vivo. The existence of multiple pathways suggests that the decapping of NAD-RNA is an important and regulated process in eukaryotes.