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Journal Article

Palmitoylation is required for TNF-R1 signaling


Glatter,  Timo
Core Facility Mass Spectrometry and Proteomics, Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, Max Planck Society;

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Zingler, P., Saerchen, V., Glatter, T., Caning, L., Saggau, C., Kathayat, R. S., et al. (2019). Palmitoylation is required for TNF-R1 signaling. CELL COMMUNICATION AND SIGNALING, 17(1): 90. doi:10.1186/s12964-019-0405-8.

Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0008-F2F1-6
Background Binding of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) to TNF-receptor 1 (TNF-R1) can induce either cell survival or cell death. The selection between these diametrically opposed effects depends on the subcellular location of TNF-R1: plasma membrane retention leads to survival, while endocytosis leads to cell death. How the respective TNF-R1 associated signaling complexes are recruited to the distinct subcellular location is not known. Here, we identify palmitoylation of TNF-R1 as a molecular mechanism to achieve signal diversification. Methods Human monocytic U937 cells were analyzed. Palmitoylated proteins were enriched by acyl resin assisted capture (AcylRAC) and analyzed by western blot and mass spectrometry. Palmitoylation of TNF-R1 was validated by metabolic labeling. TNF induced depalmitoylation and involvement of APT2 was analyzed by enzyme activity assays, pharmacological inhibition and shRNA mediated knock-down. TNF-R1 palmitoylation site analysis was done by mutated TNF-R1 expression in TNF-R1 knock-out cells. Apoptosis (nuclear DNA fragmentation, caspase 3 assays), NF-kappa B activation and TNF-R1 internalization were used as biological readouts. Results We identify dynamic S-palmitoylation as a new mechanism that controls selective TNF signaling. TNF-R1 itself is constitutively palmitoylated and depalmitoylated upon ligand binding. We identified the palmitoyl thioesterase APT2 to be involved in TNF-R1 depalmitoylation and TNF induced NF-kappa B activation. Mutation of the putative palmitoylation site C248 interferes with TNF-R1 localization to the plasma membrane and thus, proper signal transduction. Conclusions Our results introduce palmitoylation as a new layer of dynamic regulation of TNF-R1 induced signal transduction at a very early step of the TNF induced signaling cascade. Understanding the underlying mechanism may allow novel therapeutic options for disease treatment in future.