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Fundamental Flaw in the Current Construction of the TiO2 Electron Transport Layer of Perovskite Solar Cells and Its Elimination

MPS-Authors
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Yan,  Y.
Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Photochemistry, CAS Research/Education Center for Excellence in Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, The Chinese Academy of Sciences;
School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University;
Miller Group, Atomically Resolved Dynamics Department, Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Max Planck Society;

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Tiwari,  V.
Miller Group, Atomically Resolved Dynamics Department, Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Max Planck Society;
Department of Chemistry, University of Hamburg;

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Jha,  A.
Miller Group, Atomically Resolved Dynamics Department, Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Max Planck Society;
The Rosalind Franklin Institute;
Research Complex at Harwell, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory;

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Duan,  H.-G.
Miller Group, Atomically Resolved Dynamics Department, Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Max Planck Society;
Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg;
The Departments of Chemistry and Physics, University of Toronto;

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Tellkamp,  F.
Machine Physics, Scientific Service Units, Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Max Planck Society;

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Miller,  R. J. D.
Miller Group, Atomically Resolved Dynamics Department, Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Max Planck Society;
The Departments of Chemistry and Physics, University of Toronto;

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am1c09742_si_001.pdf
(Supplementary material), 914KB

Citation

Yan, Y., Liu, C., Yang, Y., Hu, G., Tiwari, V., Jiang, D.-e., et al. (2021). Fundamental Flaw in the Current Construction of the TiO2 Electron Transport Layer of Perovskite Solar Cells and Its Elimination. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 13(33), 39371-39378. doi:10.1021/acsami.1c09742.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0009-070B-4
Abstract
The top-performing perovskite solar cells (efficiency > 20%) generally rely on the use of a nanocrystal TiO2 electron transport layer (ETL). However, the efficacies and stability of the current stereotypically prepared TiO2 ETLs employing commercially available TiO2 nanocrystal paste are far from their maximum values. As revealed herein, the long-hidden reason for this discrepancy is that acidic protons (∼0.11 wt %) always remain in TiO2 ETLs after high-temperature sintering due to the decomposition of the organic proton solvent (mostly alcohol). These protons readily lead to the formation of Ti–H species upon light irradiation, which act to block the electron transfer at the perovskite/TiO2 interface. Affront this challenge, we introduced a simple deprotonation protocol by adding a small amount of strong proton acceptors (sodium ethoxide or NaOH) into the common TiO2 nanocrystal paste precursor and replicated the high-temperature sintering process, which wiped out nearly all protons in TiO2 ETLs during the sintering process. The use of deprotonated TiO2 ETLs not only promotes the PCE of both MAPbI3-based and FA0.85MA0.15PbI2.55Br0.45-based devices over 20% but also significantly improves the long-term photostability of the target devices upon 1000 h of continuous operation.