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Journal Article

Matrix Representation of Time-Delay Interferometry


Joshi,  Prasanna
Searching for Continuous Gravitational Waves, AEI-Hannover, MPI for Gravitational Physics, Max Planck Society;

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Tinto, M., Dhurandhar, S., & Joshi, P. (2021). Matrix Representation of Time-Delay Interferometry. Physical Review D, 104(4): 044033. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.104.044033.

Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0009-1851-1
Time-Delay Interferometry (TDI) is the data processing technique that cancels the large laser phase fluctuations affecting the one-way Doppler measurements made by unequal-arm space-based gravitational wave interferometers. By taking finite linear combinations of properly time-shifted Doppler measurements, laser phase fluctuations are removed at any time $t$ and gravitational wave signals can be studied at a requisite level of precision. In this article we show the delay operators used in TDI can be represented as matrices acting on arrays associated with the laser noises and Doppler measurements. The matrix formulation is nothing but the group theoretic representation (ring homomorphism) of the earlier approach involving time-delay operators and so in principle is the same. It is shown that the homomorphism is valid generally and we cover all situations of interest. To understand the potential advantages the matrix representation brings, care must be taken by the data analyst to account for the light travel times when linearly relating the one-way Doppler measurements to the laser noises. This is especially important in view of the future gravitational wave projects envisaged. We show that the matrix formulation of TDI results in the cancellation of the laser noises at an arbitrary time $t$ by only linearly combining a finite number of samples of the one-way Doppler data measured at and around time $t$.