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Journal Article

Dense gas in local galaxies revealed by multiple tracers


Gao,  Feng
Infrared and Submillimeter Astronomy, MPI for Extraterrestrial Physics, Max Planck Society;

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Li, F., Wang, J., Gao, F., Liu, S., Zhang, Z.-Y., Li, S., et al. (2021). Dense gas in local galaxies revealed by multiple tracers. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 503(3), 4508-4528. doi:10.1093/mnras/stab745.

Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0009-2267-D
We present 3 mm and 2 mm band simultaneously spectroscopic observations of HCN 1–0, HCO+ 1–0, HNC 1–0, and CS 3–2 with the IRAM 30 m telescope, towards a sample of 70 sources as nearby galaxies with infrared luminosities ranging from several 105L to more than 1012L⁠. After combining HCN 1–0, HCO+ 1–0, and HNC 1–0 data from literature with our detections, relations between luminosities of dense gas tracers (HCN 1–0, HCO+ 1–0, and HNC 1–0) and infrared luminosities are derived, with tight linear correlations for all tracers. Luminosities of CS 3–2 with only our observations also show tight linear correlation with infrared luminosities. No systematic difference is found for tracing dense molecular gas among these tracers. Star formation efficiencies for dense gas with different tracers also do not show any trend along different infrared luminosities. Our study also shows that HCN/HCO+ line ratio might not be a good indicator to diagnose obscured active galactic nucleus in galaxies.