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Journal Article

Intrinsic Dimension of Path Integrals: Data-Mining Quantum Criticality and Emergent Simplicity


Mendes-Santos,  Tiago
Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Max Planck Society;

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Mendes-Santos, T., Angelone, A., Rodriguez, A., Fazio, R., & Dalmonte, M. (2021). Intrinsic Dimension of Path Integrals: Data-Mining Quantum Criticality and Emergent Simplicity. PRX Quantum, 2(3): 030332. doi:10.1103/PRXQuantum.2.030332.

Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0009-4C24-A
Quantum many-body systems are characterized by patterns of correlations defining highly nontrivial manifolds when interpreted as data structures. Physical properties of phases and phase transitions are typically retrieved via correlation functions, that are related to observable response functions. Recent experiments have demonstrated capabilities to fully characterize quantum many-body systems via wave-function snapshots, opening new possibilities to analyze quantum phenomena. Here, we introduce a method to data mine the correlation structure of quantum partition functions via their path integral (or equivalently, stochastic series expansion) manifold. We characterize path-integral manifolds generated via state-of-the-art quantum Monte Carlo methods utilizing the intrinsic dimension (ID) and the variance of distances between nearest-neighbor (NN) configurations: the former is related to data-set complexity, while the latter is able to diagnose connectivity features of points in configuration space. We show how these properties feature universal patterns in the vicinity of quantum criticality, that reveal how data structures simplify systematically at quantum phase transitions. This is further reflected by the fact that both ID and variance of NN distances exhibit universal scaling behavior in the vicinity of second-order and Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless critical points. Finally, we show how non-Abelian symmetries dramatically influence quantum data sets, due to the nature of (noncommuting) conserved charges in the quantum case. Complementary to neural-network representations, our approach represents a first elementary step towards a systematic characterization of path-integral manifolds before any dimensional reduction is taken, that is informative about universal behavior and complexity, and can find immediate application to both experiments and Monte Carlo simulations.