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Self-consistent 3D supernova models from −7 minutes to +7 s: A 1-bethe explosion of a ∼19 M progenitor

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Bollig,  Robert
Stellar Astrophysics, MPI for Astrophysics, Max Planck Society;

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Yadav,  Naveen
MPI for Astrophysics, Max Planck Society;

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Kresse,  Daniel
Stellar Astrophysics, MPI for Astrophysics, Max Planck Society;

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Janka,  Hans-Thomas
Stellar Astrophysics, MPI for Astrophysics, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Bollig, R., Yadav, N., Kresse, D., Janka, H.-T., Müller, B., & Heger, A. (2021). Self-consistent 3D supernova models from −7 minutes to +7 s: A 1-bethe explosion of a ∼19 M progenitor. The Astrophysical Journal, 915(1): 28. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/abf82e.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0009-58F6-F
Abstract
To date, modern three-dimensional (3D) supernova (SN) simulations have not demonstrated that explosion energies of 1051 erg (=1 bethe=1 B) or more are possible for neutrino-driven SNe of non/slow-rotating M < 20 M progenitors. We present the first such model, considering a nonrotating, solar-metallicity 18.88 M progenitor, whose final 7 minutes of convective oxygen-shell burning were simulated in 3D and showed a violent oxygen–neon shell merger prior to collapse. A large set of 3D SN models was computed with the PROMETHEUS-VERTEX code, whose improved convergence of the two-moment equations with Boltzmann closure allows now to fully exploit the implicit neutrino-transport treatment. Nuclear burning is treated with a 23-species network. We vary the angular grid resolution and consider different nuclear equations of state and muon formation in the proto-neutron star (PNS), which requires six-species transport with coupling of all neutrino flavors across all energy–momentum groups. Elaborate neutrino transport was applied until ∼2 s after bounce. In one case, the simulation was continued to >7 s with an approximate treatment of neutrino effects that allows for seamless continuation without transients. A spherically symmetric neutrino-driven wind does not develop. Instead, accretion downflows to the PNS and outflows of neutrino-heated matter establish a monotonic rise of the explosion energy until ∼7 s post-bounce, when the outgoing shock reaches ∼50,000 km and enters the He layer. The converged value of the explosion energy at infinity (with overburden subtracted) is ∼1 B and the ejected 56Ni mass ≲0.087 M, both within a few 10% of the SN 1987A values. The final NS mass and kick are ∼1.65 M and >450 km s−1, respectively.