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Journal Article

Tempering Reactions and Elemental Redistribution During Tempering of Martensitic Stainless Steels


Yao,  Mengji
Atom Probe Tomography, Microstructure Physics and Alloy Design, Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max Planck Society;

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Huang, Q., Yao, M., Timokhina, I. B., Schimpf, C., Biermann, H., Volkova, O., et al. (2019). Tempering Reactions and Elemental Redistribution During Tempering of Martensitic Stainless Steels. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 50(8), 3663-3673. doi:10.1007/s11661-019-05272-3.

Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0009-7312-1
Tempering reactions in the martensite phase of Fe-13Cr-0.47C (mass pct) stainless steel and its Si- and Mn-added modifications were studied by correlative dilatometry and magnetic measurements. Tempering for 5 minutes was performed at sequentially higher temperatures up to 923 K (650 °C). Classical tempering reactions including the segregation of C atoms at defects, precipitation of M3C and Cr-rich carbides, and austenite decomposition were clearly identified. The formation of M3C carbides was partially and entirely suppressed by Mn and Si additions, respectively. Compared to low-alloy steels, the decomposition of retained austenite in stainless steels was delayed to temperatures above 823 K (550 °C). The latter occurred concurrently with the formation of Cr-rich carbides in the martensite. In addition, non-classical tempering reactions such as the partial dissolution of C clusters at temperatures above 573 K (300 °C) and the short-range diffusion of substitutional elements including Cr and Mn to C clusters and M3C carbides in the temperature range of 673 K to 823 K (400 °C to 550 °C) were identified based on the associated increase in the magnetization. © 2019, The Minerals, Metals Materials Society and ASM International.