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Characterization of a nitrite-reducing octaheme hydroxylamine oxidoreductase that lacks the tyrosine cross-link

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Kartal,  Boran
Research Group for Microbial Physiology, Department of Biogeochemistry, Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Ferousi, C., Schmitz, R. A., Maalcke, W. J., Lindhoud, S., Versantvoort, W., Jetten, M. S. M., et al. (2021). Characterization of a nitrite-reducing octaheme hydroxylamine oxidoreductase that lacks the tyrosine cross-link. JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY, 296: 100476. doi:10.1016/j.jbc.2021.100476.


Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0009-8223-C
Abstract
The hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO) family consists of octaheme proteins that harbor seven bis-His ligated electron-transferring hemes and one 5-coordinate catalytic heme with His axial ligation. Oxidative HAOs have a homotrimeric configuration with the monomers covalently attached to each other via a unique double cross-link between a Tyr residue and the catalytic heme moiety of an adjacent subunit. This cross-linked active site heme, termed the P460 cofactor, has been hypothesized to modulate enzyme reactivity toward oxidative catalysis. Conversely, the absence of this cross-link is predicted to favor reductive catalysis. However, this prediction has not been directly tested. In this study, an HAO homolog that lacks the heme-Tyr cross-link (HAOr) was purified to homogeneity from the nitrite-dependent anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacterium Kuenenia stuttgartiensis, and its catalytic and spectroscopic properties were assessed. We show that HAOr reduced nitrite to nitric oxide and also reduced nitric oxide and hydroxylamine as nonphysiological substrates. In contrast, HAOr was not able to oxidize hydroxylamine or hydrazine supporting the notion that cross-link-deficient HAO enzymes are reductases. Compared with oxidative HAOs, we found that HAOr harbors an active site heme with a higher (at least 80 mV) midpoint potential and a much lower degree of porphyrin ruffling. Based on the physiology of anammox bacteria and our results, we propose that HAOr reduces nitrite to nitric oxide in vivo, providing anammox bacteria with NO, which they use to activate ammonium in the absence of oxygen.