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Tight Coupling of Surface and In-Plant Biochemistry and Convection Governs Key Fine Particulate Components over the Amazon Rainforest

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Schneider,  Johannes
Particle Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Pöschl,  Ulrich
Multiphase Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Shrivastava, M., Rasool, Q. Z., Zhao, B., Octaviani, M., Zaveri, R. A., Zelenyuk, A., et al. (2022). Tight Coupling of Surface and In-Plant Biochemistry and Convection Governs Key Fine Particulate Components over the Amazon Rainforest. ACS Earth and Space Chemistry, 6. doi:10.1021/acsearthspacechem.1c00232.


Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0009-CDA3-8
Abstract
Combining unique high-altitude aircraft measurements and detailed regional model simulations, we show that in-plant biochemistry plays a central but previously unidentified role in fine particulate-forming processes and atmosphere–biosphere–climate interactions over the Amazon rainforest. Isoprene epoxydiol secondary organic aerosols (IEPOX-SOA) are key components of sub-micrometer aerosol particle mass throughout the troposphere over the Amazon rainforest and are traditionally thought to form by multiphase chemical pathways. Here, we show that these pathways are strongly inhibited by the solid thermodynamic phase state of aerosol particles and lack of particle and cloud liquid water in the upper troposphere. Strong diffusion limitations within organic aerosol coatings prevailing at low temperatures and low relative humidity in the upper troposphere strongly inhibit the reactive uptake of IEPOX to inorganic aerosols. We find that direct emissions of 2-methyltetrol gases formed by in-plant biochemical oxidation and/or oxidation of deposited IEPOX gases on the surfaces of soils and leaves and their transport by cloud updrafts followed by their condensation at low temperatures could explain over 90% of the IEPOX-SOA mass concentrations in the upper troposphere. Our simulations indicate that even near the surface, direct emissions of 2-methyltetrol gases represent a ubiquitous, but previously unaccounted for, source of IEPOX-SOA. Our results provide compelling evidence for new pathways related to land surface–aerosol–cloud interactions that have not been considered previously.