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Journal Article

Melatonin suppression does not automatically alter sleepiness, vigilance, sensory processing, or sleep


Spitschan,  M
Research Group Translational Sensory and Circadian Neuroscience, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Max Planck Society;

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Blume, C., Niedernhuber, M., Spitschan, M., Slawik, H., Meyer, M., Bekinschtein, T., et al. (2022). Melatonin suppression does not automatically alter sleepiness, vigilance, sensory processing, or sleep. Sleep, 45(11): zsac199. doi:10.1093/sleep/zsac199.

Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-000A-91DE-8
Pre-sleep exposure to short-wavelength light suppresses melatonin and decreases sleepiness with activating effects extending to sleep. This has mainly been attributed to melanopic effects, but mechanistic insights are missing. Thus, we investigated whether two light conditions only differing in the melanopic effects (123 vs. 59 lux melanopic EDI) differentially affect sleep besides melatonin. Additionally, we studied whether the light differentially modulates sensory processing during wakefulness and sleep. Twenty-nine healthy volunteers (18-30 years, 15 women) were exposed to two metameric light conditions (high- vs. low-melanopic, ≈60 photopic lux) for 1 hour ending 50 min prior to habitual bed time. This was followed by an 8-h sleep opportunity with polysomnography. Objective sleep measurements were complemented by self-report. Salivary melatonin, subjective sleepiness, and behavioural vigilance were sampled at regular intervals. Sensory processing was evaluated during light exposure and sleep on the basis of neural responses related to violations of expectations in an oddball paradigm. We observed suppression of melatonin by ≈14 % in the high- compared to the low-melanopic condition. However, conditions did not differentially affect sleep, sleep quality, sleepiness, or vigilance. A neural mismatch response was evident during all sleep stages, but not differentially modulated by light. Suppression of melatonin by light targeting the melanopic system does not automatically translate to acutely altered levels of vigilance or sleepiness or to changes in sleep, sleep quality, or basic sensory processing. Given contradicting earlier findings and the retinal anatomy, this may suggest that an interaction between melanopsin and cone-rod signals needs to be considered.