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More than the sum of its parts


Fischer,  Jonas
Databases and Information Systems, MPI for Informatics, Max Planck Society;
International Max Planck Research School, MPI for Informatics, Max Planck Society;

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Fischer, J. (2022). More than the sum of its parts. PhD Thesis, Universität des Saarlandes, Saarbrücken. doi:10.22028/D291-37024.

Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-000B-38BF-0
In this thesis we explore pattern mining and deep learning. Often seen as orthogonal, we show that these fields complement each other and propose to combine them to gain from each other’s strengths. We, first, show how to efficiently discover succinct and non-redundant sets of patterns that provide insight into data beyond conjunctive statements. We leverage the interpretability of such patterns to unveil how and which information flows through neural networks, as well as what characterizes their decisions. Conversely, we show how to combine continuous optimization with pattern discovery, proposing a neural network that directly encodes discrete patterns, which allows us to apply pattern mining at a scale orders of magnitude larger than previously possible. Large neural networks are, however, exceedingly expensive to train for which ‘lottery tickets’ – small, well-trainable sub-networks in randomly initialized neural networks – offer a remedy. We identify theoretical limitations of strong tickets and overcome them by equipping these tickets with the property of universal approximation. To analyze whether limitations in ticket sparsity are algorithmic or fundamental, we propose a framework to plant and hide lottery tickets. With novel ticket benchmarks we then conclude that the limitation is likely algorithmic, encouraging further developments for which our framework offers means to measure progress.