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Sublinear scaling of the cellular proteome with ploidy

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Wallek,  Andreas Ulrich
Storchova, Zuzana / Maintenance of Genome Stability, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Kulak,  Nils Alexander
Mann, Matthias / Proteomics and Signal Transduction, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Mann,  Matthias
Mann, Matthias / Proteomics and Signal Transduction, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Yahya, G., Menges, P., Amponsah, P. S., Ngandiri, D. A., Schulz, D., Wallek, A. U., et al. (2022). Sublinear scaling of the cellular proteome with ploidy. Nature Communications, 13(1): 6182. doi:10.1038/s41467-022-33904-7.


Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-000B-6641-9
Abstract
Ploidy changes are frequent in nature and contribute to evolution, functional specialization and tumorigenesis. Analysis of model organisms of different ploidies revealed that increased ploidy leads to an increase in cell and nuclear volume, reduced proliferation, metabolic changes, lower fitness, and increased genomic instability, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. To investigate how gene expression changes with cellular ploidy, we analyzed isogenic series of budding yeasts from 1N to 4N. We show that mRNA and protein abundance scales allometrically with ploidy, with tetraploid cells showing only threefold increase in protein abundance compared to haploids. This ploidy-dependent sublinear scaling occurs via decreased rRNA and ribosomal protein abundance and reduced translation. We demonstrate that the activity of Tor1 is reduced with increasing ploidy, which leads to diminished rRNA gene repression via a Tor1-Sch9-Tup1 signaling pathway. mTORC1 and S6K activity are also reduced in human tetraploid cells and the concomitant increase of the Tup1 homolog Tle1 downregulates the rDNA transcription. Our results suggest that the mTORC1-Sch9/S6K-Tup1/TLE1 pathway ensures proteome remodeling in response to increased ploidy.