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Journal Article

Photon-shot-noise-limited transient absorption soft X-ray spectroscopy at the European XFEL


Fangohr,  H.
European XFEL;
Computational Science, Scientific Service Units, Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Max Planck Society;
University of Southampton;

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Guyader, L. L., Eschenlohr, A., Beye, M., Schlotter, W., Döring, F., Carinan, C., et al. (2023). Photon-shot-noise-limited transient absorption soft X-ray spectroscopy at the European XFEL. Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, 30(2), 284-300. doi:10.1107/S1600577523000619.

Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-000B-72CD-E
Femtosecond transient soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a very promising technique that can be employed at X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) to investigate out-of-equilibrium dynamics for material and energy research. Here, a dedicated setup for soft X-rays available at the Spectroscopy and Coherent Scattering (SCS) instrument at the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (European XFEL) is presented. It consists of a beam-splitting off-axis zone plate (BOZ) used in transmission to create three copies of the incoming beam, which are used to measure the transmitted intensity through the excited and unexcited sample, as well as to monitor the incoming intensity. Since these three intensity signals are detected shot by shot and simultaneously, this setup allows normalized shot-by-shot analysis of the transmission. For photon detection, an imaging detector capable of recording up to 800 images at 4.5 MHz frame rate during the FEL burst is employed, and allows a photon-shot-noise-limited sensitivity to be approached. The setup and its capabilities are reviewed as well as the online and offline analysis tools provided to users.