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Journal Article

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Forms d-2-Hydroxyglutarate and Couples Its Degradation to d-Lactate Formation via a Cytosolic Transhydrogenase

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Becker-Kettern, J., Paczia, N., Conrotte, J.-F., Kay, D. P., Guignard, C., Jung, P. P., et al. (2016). Saccharomyces cerevisiae Forms d-2-Hydroxyglutarate and Couples Its Degradation to d-Lactate Formation via a Cytosolic Transhydrogenase. JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY, 291(12), 6036-6058. doi:10.1074/jbc.M115.704494.

Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-000B-9BE7-2
The d or l form of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) accumulates in certain rare neurometabolic disorders, and high d-2-hydroxyglutarate (d-2HG) levels are also found in several types of cancer. Although 2HG has been detected in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, its metabolism in yeast has remained largely unexplored. Here, we show that S. cerevisiae actively forms the d enantiomer of 2HG. Accordingly, the S. cerevisiae genome encodes two homologs of the human d-2HG dehydrogenase: Dld2, which, as its human homolog, is a mitochondrial protein, and the cytosolic protein Dld3. Intriguingly, we found that a dld3 knock-out strain accumulates millimolar levels of d-2HG, whereas a dld2 knock-out strain displayed only very moderate increases in d-2HG. Recombinant Dld2 and Dld3, both currently annotated as d-lactate dehydrogenases, efficiently oxidized d-2HG to -ketoglutarate. Depletion of d-lactate levels in the dld3, but not in the dld2 mutant, led to the discovery of a new type of enzymatic activity, carried by Dld3, to convert d-2HG to -ketoglutarate, namely an FAD-dependent transhydrogenase activity using pyruvate as a hydrogen acceptor. We also provide evidence that Ser3 and Ser33, which are primarily known for oxidizing 3-phosphoglycerate in the main serine biosynthesis pathway, in addition reduce -ketoglutarate to d-2HG using NADH and represent major intracellular sources of d-2HG in yeast. Based on our observations, we propose that d-2HG is mainly formed and degraded in the cytosol of S. cerevisiae cells in a process that couples d-2HG metabolism to the shuttling of reducing equivalents from cytosolic NADH to the mitochondrial respiratory chain via the d-lactate dehydrogenase Dld1.