Help Privacy Policy Disclaimer
  Advanced SearchBrowse




Journal Article

From one amino acid to another: tRNA-dependent amino acid biosynthesis

There are no MPG-Authors in the publication available
External Resource
No external resources are shared
Fulltext (restricted access)
There are currently no full texts shared for your IP range.
Fulltext (public)
There are no public fulltexts stored in PuRe
Supplementary Material (public)
There is no public supplementary material available

Sheppard, K., Yuan, J., Hohn, M. J., Jester, B., Devine, K. M., & Soll, D. (2008). From one amino acid to another: tRNA-dependent amino acid biosynthesis. NUCLEIC ACIDS RESEARCH, 36(6), 1813-1825. doi:10.1093/nar/gkn015.

Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-000B-EF10-6
Aminoacyl-tRNAs (aa-tRNAs) are the essential substrates for translation. Most aa-tRNAs are formed by direct aminoacylation of tRNA catalyzed by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. However, a smaller number of aa-tRNAs (Asn-tRNA, Gln-tRNA, Cys-tRNA and Sec-tRNA) are made by synthesizing the amino acid on the tRNA by first attaching a non-cognate amino acid to the tRNA, which is then converted to the cognate one catalyzed by tRNA-dependent modifying enzymes. Asn-tRNA or Gln-tRNA formation in most prokaryotes requires amidation of Asp-tRNA or Glu-tRNA by amidotransferases that couple an amidase or an asparaginase to liberate ammonia with a tRNA-dependent kinase. Both archaeal and eukaryotic Sec-tRNA biosynthesis and Cys-tRNA synthesis in methanogens require O-phosophoseryl-tRNA formation. For tRNA-dependent Cys biosynthesis, O-phosphoseryl-tRNA synthetase directly attaches the amino acid to the tRNA which is then converted to Cys by Sep-tRNA: Cys-tRNA synthase. In Sec-tRNA synthesis, O-phosphoseryl-tRNA kinase phosphorylates Ser-tRNA to form the intermediate which is then modified to Sec-tRNA by Sep-tRNA:Sec-tRNA synthase. Complex formation between enzymes in the same pathway may protect the fidelity of protein synthesis. How these tRNA-dependent amino acid biosynthetic routes are integrated into overall metabolism may explain why they are still retained in so many organisms.