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Journal Article

TOI-2525 b and c: A Pair of Massive Warm Giant Planets with Strong Transit Timing Variations Revealed by TESS*


Heller,  R.
Department Solar and Stellar Interiors, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max Planck Society;

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Trifonov, T., Brahm, R., Jordán, A., Hartogh, C., Henning, T., Hobson, M. J., et al. (2023). TOI-2525 b and c: A Pair of Massive Warm Giant Planets with Strong Transit Timing Variations Revealed by TESS*. The Astronomical Journal, 165, 179. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/acba9b.

Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-000D-7866-A
The K-type star TOI-2525 has an estimated mass of M = 0,849+0.024-0.033 M⊙ and radius of R = R⊙ observed by the TESS mission in 22 sectors (within sectors 1 and 39). The TESS light curves yield significant transit events of two companions, which show strong transit timing variations (TTVs) with a semiamplitude of ∼6 hr. We performed TTV dynamical and photodynamical light-curve analysis of the TESS data combined with radial velocity measurements from FEROS and PFS, and we confirmed the planetary nature of these companions. The TOI-2525 system consists of a transiting pair of planets comparable to Neptune and Jupiter with estimated dynamical masses of mb = and mc = MJup, radii of rb = and rc = RJup, and orbital periods of Pb = and Pc = days for the inner and outer planet, respectively. The period ratio is close to the 2:1 period commensurability, but the dynamical simulations of the system suggest that it is outside the mean-motion resonance (MMR) dynamical configuration. Object TOI-2525 b is among the lowest-density Neptune-mass planets known to date, with an estimated median density of ρb = g cm−3. The TOI-2525 system is very similar to the other K dwarf systems discovered by TESS, TOI-2202 and TOI-216, which are composed of almost identical K dwarf primaries and two warm giant planets near the 2:1 MMR.