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Journal Article

The source of unusual coronal upflows with photospheric abundance in a solar active region

MPS-Authors
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Mandal,  S.
Department Sun and Heliosphere, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max Planck Society;

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Schühle,  U.
Department Sun and Heliosphere, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max Planck Society;

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Aznar Cuadrado,  R.
Department Sun and Heliosphere, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max Planck Society;

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Peter,  H.
Department Sun and Heliosphere, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max Planck Society;

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Teriaca,  L.
Department Sun and Heliosphere, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Harra, L. K., Mandrini, C. H., Brooks, D. H., Barczynski, K., Mac Cormack, C., Cristiani, G., et al. (2023). The source of unusual coronal upflows with photospheric abundance in a solar active region. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 675, A20. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202245747.


Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-000D-854B-9
Abstract
Context. Upflows in the corona are of importance, as they may contribute to the solar wind. There has been considerable interest in upflows from active regions (ARs). The coronal upflows that are seen at the edges of active regions have coronal elemental composition and can contribute to the slow solar wind. The sources of the upflows have been challenging to determine because they may be multiple, and the spatial resolution of previous observations is not yet high enough.
Aims: In this article, we analyse coronal upflows in AR 12960 that are unusually close to the sunspot umbra. We analyse their properties, and we attempt to determine if it is possible that they feed into the slow solar wind.
Methods: We analysed the activity in the upflow region in detail using a combination of Solar Orbiter EUV images at high spatial and temporal resolution, Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer data, and observations from instruments on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. This combined dataset was acquired during the first Solar Orbiter perihelion of the science phase, which provided a spatial resolution of 356 km for two pixels. Doppler velocity, density, and plasma composition determinations, as well as coronal magnetic field modelling, were carried out to understand the source of the upflows.
Results: We observed small magnetic fragments, called moving magnetic features (MMFs), moving away from the sunspot in the active region. Specifically, they moved towards the sunspot from the edge of the penumbra where a small positive polarity connects to the umbra via small-scale and very dynamic coronal loops. At this location, small dark grains are evident and flow along penumbral filaments in continuum images. The magnetic field modelling showed small low-lying loops anchored close to the umbral magnetic field. The high-resolution data of the Solar Orbiter EUV Imagers showed the dynamics of these small loops, which last on time scales of only minutes. The edges of these small loops are the location of the coronal upflow that has photospheric abundance. <P />Movies associated with Figs. 3, 4, 7, and 8 are available at <A href="https://www.aanda.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202245747/olm">https://www.aanda.org</A>.