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Human DCP1 is crucial for mRNA decapping and possesses paralog-specific gene regulating functions

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Noble,  M
Department Biochemistry, Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Max Planck Society;

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Chang,  C-T       
Department Biochemistry, Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Chen, T.-W., Liao, H.-W., Noble, M., Siao, J.-Y., & Chang, C.-T. (2024). Human DCP1 is crucial for mRNA decapping and possesses paralog-specific gene regulating functions. eLife, Epub ahead. doi:10.7554/eLife.94811.1.


Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-000D-F96A-4
Abstract
The mRNA 5’-cap structure removal by the decapping enzyme DCP2 is a critical step in gene regulation. While DCP2 is the catalytic subunit in the decapping complex, its activity is strongly enhanced by multiple factors, particularly DCP1, which is the major activator in yeast. However, the precise role of DCP1 in metazoans has yet to be fully elucidated. Moreover, in humans, the specific biological functions of the two DCP1 paralogs, DCP1a and DCP1b, remain largely unknown. To investigate the role of human DCP1, we generated cell-lines that were deficient in DCP1a, DCP1b or both to evaluate the importance of DCP1 in the decapping machinery. Our results highlight the importance of human DCP1 in decapping process and show that the EVH1 domain of DCP1 enhances the mRNA-binding affinity of DCP2. Transcriptome and metabolome analyses outline the distinct functions of DCP1a and DCP1b in human cells, regulating specific endogenous mRNA targets and biological processes. Overall, our findings provide insights into the molecular mechanism of human DCP1 in mRNA decapping and shed light on the distinct functions of its paralogs.