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Journal Article

Is strongyloidiasis a zoonosis from dogs?


Streit,  A       
Department Integrative Evolutionary Biology, Max Planck Institute for Biology Tübingen, Max Planck Society;
Parasitic Nematode Group, Department Integrative Evolutionary Biology, Max Planck Institute for Biology Tübingen, Max Planck Society;

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Bradbury, R., & Streit, A. (2024). Is strongyloidiasis a zoonosis from dogs? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences, 379(1894): 20220445. doi:10.1098/rstb.2022.0445.

Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-000D-FAAE-6
Strongyloides stercoralis infection remains a major veterinary and public health challenge globally. This chronic and potentially lifelong disease has fatal outcomes in immunosuppressed people and dogs. Currently, the role of dogs in the transmission cycle of human strongyloidiasis remains enigmatic. While zoonotic transmission to humans from companion animals has been proposed, this has not been confirmed. Modern molecular methods have allowed greater opportunity to explore the genotypes of S. stercoralis in dogs and humans. Work thus far has demonstrated that at least two distinct lineages exist, one apparently confined to canine hosts and one found in canine, feline, human and non-human primate hosts. Although genotyping of dog and human isolates from the same village has demonstrated identical genotypes in both species, coprophagia of human waste by dogs confounds interpretation. It remains unclear if dogs act as a zoonotic reservoir for human infection, or vice versa, or if this occurs only in some regions of the world and not in others. These questions must be answered before effective control strategies for strongyloidiasis can be instituted. This review explores the evidence for and against cross-species transmission of S. stercoralis between dogs and humans and summarizes future directions for research in this area. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting Issue 'Strongyloides: omics to worm-free populations'.