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Journal Article

The resting brain: Unconstrained yet reliable

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Shehzad, Z. E., Kelly, A. M. C., Reiss, P. T., Gee, D. G., Gotimer, K., Uddin, L. Q., et al. (2009). The resting brain: Unconstrained yet reliable. Cerebral Cortex, 19(10), 2209-2229. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhn256.

Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0010-E328-4
Recent years have witnessed an upsurge in the usage of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine functional connectivity (fcMRI), both in normal and pathological populations. Despite this increasing popularity, concerns about the psychologically unconstrained nature of the "resting-state" remain. Across studies, the patterns of functional connectivity detected are remarkably consistent. However, the test-retest reliability for measures of resting state fcMRI measures has not been determined. Here, we quantify the test-retest reliability, using resting scans from 26 participants at 3 different time points. Specifically, we assessed intersession (>5 months apart), intrasession (<1 h apart), and multiscan (across all 3 scans) reliability and consistency for both region-of-interest and voxel-wise analyses. For both approaches, we observed modest to high reliability across connections, dependent upon 3 predictive factors: 1) correlation significance (significantly nonzero > nonsignificant), 2) correlation valence (positive > negative), and 3) network membership (default mode > task positive network). Short- and long-term measures of the consistency of global connectivity patterns were highly robust. Finally, hierarchical clustering solutions were highly reproducible, both across participants and sessions. Our findings provide a solid foundation for continued examination of resting state fcMRI in typical and atypical populations.