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Book Chapter

Ammonia Synthesis – Heterogeneous


Ertl,  Gerhard
Physical Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute, Max Planck Society;

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Ertl, G. (2002). Ammonia Synthesis – Heterogeneous. In I. T. Horváth, E. Iglesia, M. T. Klein, J. A. Lercher, A. J. Russell, & E. I. Stiefel (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Catalysis. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0011-1442-1
1. History; 2. Ammonia Synthesis with Iron-Based Catalysts; 3. Alternative Catalysts; Bibliography. The first industrial plant for the manufacture of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen on the basis of the Haber–Bosch process started operation in 1909 by using a promoted iron catalyst developed by Mittasch. In recent years the individual reaction steps were explored in detail, both experimentally and theoretically. Ruthenium-based catalysts present promising alternatives for future technologies.