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Journal Article

S-matrix unitarity, impact parameter profiles, gluon saturation and high-energy scattering


Pirner,  H. J.
Prof. Hans A. Weidenmüller, Emeriti, MPI for Nuclear Physics, Max Planck Society;

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Shoshi, A. I., Steffen, F. D., & Pirner, H. J. (2002). S-matrix unitarity, impact parameter profiles, gluon saturation and high-energy scattering. Nuclear Physics A, 709, 131-183.

Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0011-828B-9
A model combining perturbative and non-perturbative QCD is developed to compute high-energy reactions of hadrons and photons and to investigate saturation effects that manifest the S-matrix unitarity. Following a functional integral approach, the S-matrix factorizes into light-cone wave functions and the universal amplitude for the scattering of two color-dipoles which are represented by Wegner-Wilson loops. In the framework of the non-perturbative stochastic vacuum model of QCD supplemented by perturbative gluon exchange, the loop-loop correlation is calculated and related to lattice QCD investigations. With a universal energy dependence motivated by the two-pomeron (soft + hard) picture that respects the unitarity condition in impact parameter space, a unified description of pp, pip, Kp, gamma*p, and gammagamma reactions is achieved in good agreement with experimental data for cross sections, slope parameters, and structure functions. Impact parameter profiles for pp and gamma(L)*p reactions and the gluon distribution of the proton xG(x, Q(2), \(b) over right arrow (perpendicular to)\) are calculated and found to saturate in accordance with S-matrix unitarity. The c.m. energies and Bjorken x at which saturation sets in are determined. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.