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Journal Article

The Sun and Heliosphere at Solar Maximum

MPS-Authors
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Krupp,  N.
Ralf Srama - Heidelberg Dust Group, Research Groups, MPI for Nuclear Physics, Max Planck Society;

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Krüger,  Harald
Ralf Srama - Heidelberg Dust Group, Research Groups, MPI for Nuclear Physics, Max Planck Society;

/persons/resource/persons30742

Landgraf,  M.
Ralf Srama - Heidelberg Dust Group, Research Groups, MPI for Nuclear Physics, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Smith, E. J., Marsden, R. G., Balogh, A., Gloeckler, G., Geiss, J., McComas, D. J., et al. (2003). The Sun and Heliosphere at Solar Maximum. Science, 302(5648), 1165-1169. Retrieved from http://www.sciencemag.org/.


Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0011-8DB7-7
Abstract
Recent Ulysses observations from the Sun's equator to the poles reveal fundamental properties of the three-dimensional heliosphere at the maximum in solar activity. The heliospheric magnetic field originates from a magnetic dipole oriented nearly perpendicular to, instead of nearly parallel to, the Sun's rotation axis. Magnetic fields, solar wind, and energetic charged particles from low-latitude sources reach all latitudes, including the polar caps. The very fast high-latitude wind and polar coronal holes disappear and reappear together. Solar wind speed continues to be inversely correlated with coronal temperature. The cosmic ray flux is reduced symmetrically at all latitudes.